The word Musaafir means traveller, it comes from the arabic word “safar” (journey). However to be musaafir (islamic traveller) according to the shariat means one who, from the place of his usual residence (homeplace), accomplish a journey of 92 kms or more (57¼ miles or more) and decide not to stay 15 days or more in one place. But if he has the firm intention to stay in a place for 15 days or more, therefore he won’t be considered as a traveller (musaafir) thought the distance travelled. However, if he goes to two places or more (further than this distance), for example he stays 10 days in a place and 5 days in another place, he will then be considered as a musaafir.
So Islam recognize the state of a traveller (man or woman), the tiredness that this can generate and especially the different type of life during a journey rateher than being at one’s place.
According to the shariat, the traveller (if he wish) can be exempted of roza (fast) during a journey, provided that he replaces the number of missed fast, after his journey, since the fast of Ramadwaan is compulsory. But if the traveller considers that he will not be disadvantaged by the fast in spite of his journey, he can of course choose to observe his fast in order not to lose the thawaabs (rewards) of a fast carried out during Ramadwaan.
Also, in the namaz whose faraz raka’ats are 4 like in Zohar, Assar and Ishaa, the traveller is allowed to observe only 2 raka’ats faraz of them. However the sunnat raka’ats are not subjected to this shortening. By shortening faraz raka’ats, musaafir can just specify it in the niyyat while thinking of it in his intention. For the unconditional ones of the niyyat, it will be enough for them to add the term “Anaa musaafirinn” before “Mutawwajjihann…” in their arabic niyyat reading.