Glossary of Islamic Terms

24 Aug


Ø ‘Abd : A male slave.

Ø ‘Ad : An ancient tribe that lived after Noah. It was prosperous, but naughty and disobedient to Allah, so Allah destroyed it with violent destructive westerly wind.

Ø (Ad) Dabur : Westerly wind.

Ø (Ad) Dajjal : Pseudo Messiah (Al-Masih-ad-Dajjal) (See F.N. of V. 6: 158 the Qur’ân) and also Hadîth No.649 and 650, Vol.4, Sahih Al-Bukhari).

Ø Adhân : The call to prayer pronounced loudly to indicate that the time of praying is due. And it is as follows: Allahu Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill Allah, Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill Allah; Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul-Ullah, Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul-Ullah; Haiya ‘alas-Sala(h), Haiya’alas-Sala(h); Haiya ‘alal-Falah, Haiya ‘alal-Falah; Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; La ilaha ill Allah. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol.1, Page 334).

Ø Adhkhar or Idhkhir : A kind of grass well-known for its good smell and is found in Hijaz, Saudi Arabia.

Ø Ahkâm : “Orders”. According to Islamic Law, there are five kinds of orders: 1. Compulsory (Wajib) 2. Order without obligation (Mustahab) 3. Forbidden (Muharram) 4. Disliked but not forbidden (Makruh) 5. Legal and allowed (Halâl)

Ø ‘Ajwa : Pressed soft dates (or a kind of dates).

Ø Al-Ahzâb : Confederates.

Ø Al-‘Aqiq : A valley in Al-Madina about seven kilometers west of Al-Madina.

Ø Al-‘Amânah : The trust or the moral responsibility or honesty, and all the duties which Allah has ordained.

Ø Al-‘Awamir : Snakes living in houses.

Ø Al-Bahîra : A milking she-camel, whose milk used to be spared for idols and other false deities.

Ø Al-Baida’ : A place to the south of Al-Madina on the way to Makka.

Ø Al-Bait-ul-Ma’mur : Allah’s House over the seventh heaven.

Ø Al-Batsha : Grasp.

Ø Al-Fâtiha : The first Sûrah in the Qur’ân.

Ø Al-Firdaus : The middle and the highest part of Paradise.

Ø Al-Ghâba : (Literally : the forest) A well-known place near Al-Madina.

Ø Al-Ghurr-ul-Muhajjalûn : A name that will be given on the Day of Resurrection to the Muslims because the parts of their bodies which they used to wash in ablution will shine then.

Ø Al-Harûriyya : A special unorthodox religious sect.

Ø Al-Hasbâ : A place outside Makka where pilgrims go after finishing all the ceremonies of Hajj.

Ø Al-Hijr : The unroofed portion of the Ka’ba which at present is in the form of a compound towards the north of the Ka’ba.

Ø Al-Hudaibiya : A well-known place ten miles from Makka on the way to Jeddah..

Ø Al-Ihtibâ’ : A sitting posture, putting one’s arms around one’s legs while sitting on the hips.

Ø Al-Ji’rana : A place, few miles from Makka. The Prophet saw distributed the war booty of the battle of Hunain there, and from there he assumed the state of Ihram to perform ‘Umra.

Ø Al-Juhfa : The Miqât of the people of Shâm.

Ø Al-Kabâ’ir : The biggest sins.

Ø Ghazwat-al-Khandaq : The name of a battle between the early Muslims and the infidels in which the Muslims dug a Khandaq (trench) round Al-Madina to prevent any advance by the enemies.

Ø Al-Kauthar : A river in Paradise (See The Qur’ân, Sûrah No.108).

Ø Al-Lât & Al-‘Uzza : Well-known idols in Hijaz which used to be worshipped during the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance.

Ø Al-Lizâm : The settlement of affairs, in the Hadîth, it refers to the battle of Badr, which was the means of settling affairs between the Muslims and the pagans.

Ø Al-Madina : Well-known town in Saudi Arabia, where the Prophet’s mosque is situated.

Ø Al-Maghâzi : Plural of Ghazwâ (i.e. holy battle).

Ø Al-Mahassab : A valley outside Makka sometimes called Khaif Banî Kinana.

Ø Al-Manâsî : A vast plateau on the outskirts of Al-Madina.

Ø Al-Masjid-al-Aqsâ : The great mosque in Jerusalem.

Ø Al-Masjid-al-Haram : The great mosque in Makka. The Ka’ba is situated in it..

Ø Al-Mut’a : A temporary marriage which was allowed in the early period of Islam when one was away from his home, but later on it was cancelled (abrogated).

Ø Al-Muta’awwilûn : Those (ones) who form wrong opinions of Kufr about their Muslim brothers.

Ø Al-Qasâma : The oath taken by 50 men of the tribe of a person who is being accused of killing somebody.

Ø Al-Qaswâ’ : The name of the Prophet’ssaw she-camel.

Ø Al-Qisâs : Laws of equality in punishment for wounds etc. in retaliation.

Ø Al-Wâsil : One who keeps good relations with his kith and kin.

Ø Al-Yarmûk : A place in Shâm.

Ø Allahu-Akbar : Allah is the Most Great.

Ø Ama : A female slave.

Ø Amîn : O Allah, accept our invocation.

Ø Amma Ba’du : An expression used for separating an introductory from the main topics in a speech; the introductory being usually concerned with Allah’s Praises and Glorification. Literally it means, “whatever comes after.”

Ø An-Najashi : (Title for the) king of Ethiopia.

Ø An-Najash : A trick (of offering a very high price) for something without the intention of buying it but just to allure and cheat somebody else who really wants to buy it although it is not worth such a high price.

Ø An-Najwa : The private talk between Allah and each of His slaves on the Day of Resurrection. It also means, a secret counsel or conference or consultation. [See the Qur’ân (V.58: 7-13), and also see the F.N. of (V.11:18)].(See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol.3, Hadîth No. 621).

Ø Ansâri : The Companions of the Prophet sawfrom the inhabitants of Al-Madina, who embraced Islam and supported it and who received and entertained the Muslim emigrants from Makka and other places.

Ø ‘Anza : A spear-headed stick.

Ø ‘Aqîqa : It is the sacrificing of one or two sheep on the occasion of the birth of a child, as a token of gratitude to Allah. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, The Book of ‘Aqîqa, Vol. 7, Page No. 272).

Ø ‘Aqra Halqa : Is just an exclamatory expression, the literal meaning of which is not meant always. It expresses disapproval.

Ø ‘Arafât : A famous place of pilgrimage on the south-east of Makka about twenty-five kilometers from it.

Ø Arak : A tree from which Siwak (tooth brush) is made.

Ø ‘Ariya (plural ‘Arâyâ) : Bai’-al-‘Arayâ is a kind of sale by which the owner of a ‘Ariya is allowed to sell the fresh dates while they are still over the palms by means of estimation, for dried plucked dates. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol.3, Ahadîth Nos. 389, 394 and 397).

Ø Ar-Rajm : Means (in Islamic Law) to stone to death those married persons who commit the crime of illegal sexual intercourse.

Ø ‘Arsh : Compensation given in case of someone’s injury caused by another person.

Ø Ar-Ruqya : Divine Speech recited as a means of curing disease. (It is a kind of treatment, i.e. to recite Sûrat Al-Fâtiha or any other Sûrah of the Qur’ân and then blow one’s breath with saliva over a sick person’s body-part).

Ø ‘Asaba : All male relatives of a deceased person, from the father’s side.

Ø ‘Asb : A kind of Yemeni cloth that is very coarse.

Ø Ash-Shajara : A well-known place on the way from Al-Madina to Makka.

Ø Ash-Shiqâq : Difference between husband and wife.

Ø ‘Ashûra : The 10th of the month of Muharram (the first month in the Islamic calendar).

Ø ‘Asr : Afternoon, ‘Asr prayer time.

Ø As-Sabâ : Easterly wind.

Ø As-Sâ’iba : A she-camel which used to be let loose for free pastures in the name of idols, gods, and false deities. (See the Noble Qur’ân 5:103).

Ø As-Saum : The fasting i.e., to not to eat or drink or have sexual relations etc. from before the Adhân of the Fajr (early morning) prayer till the sunset.

Ø As-Sirât : Sirât: originally means ‘a road’; it also means the bridge that will be laid across Hell-Fire for the people to pass over on the Day of Judgement. It is described as sharper than a sword and thinner than a hair. It will have hooks over it to snatch the people.

Ø Ashâb As-Suffa : They were about eighty men or more who used to stay and have religious teachings in the Prophet’s mosque in Al-Madina, and they were very poor people.

Ø At-Tan’îm : A place towards the north of Makka outside the sanctuary from where Makkans may assume the state of Ihrâm to perform ‘Umra.

Ø ‘Aura : That part of the body which it is illegal to keep naked before others.

Ø ‘Awâli-al-Madina : Outskirts of Al-Madina at a distance of four or more miles.

Ø Awâqin : (Singular: Uqiyya: 5 Awaqin = 22 Silver Riyals of Yemen or 200 Silver Dirham (i.e. 640 grams approx.) (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 2, Hadîth No. 526).

Ø Awsaq : Plural of Wasq, which is a measure equal to 60 Sa’s = 135 kgms. 1 a’ = 3 kilograms (approx). It may be less or more.

Ø Ayât : Proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.

Ø Ayât-ul-Kursi : Qur’ânic Verse No. 255 of Sûrat Al-Baqara.

Ø Azlâm : Literally means “arrows”. Here it means arrows used to seek good luck or a decision, practised by the ‘Arabs of Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance.

Ø Badana : (Plural : Budn) A camel or a cow or an ox driven to be offered as a sacrifice, by the pilgrims at the sanctuary of Makka.

Ø Badr : A place about 150 kilometer to the south of Al-Madina, where the first great battle in Islamic history took place between the early Muslims and the infidels of Quraish.

Ø Badhaq : A kind of alcoholic drink prepared from grapes.

Ø Bai’â (pledge) : A pledge given by the citizens etc. to their Imâm (Muslim ruler) to be obedient to him according to the Islamic religion.

Ø Bait-ul-Midras : A place in Al-Madina (and it was a Jewish centre).

Ø Bait-ul- Maqdis : Bait’ literally means ‘House’: a mosque is frequently called Baitullah (the House of Allah). Bait-ul-Maqdis is the famous mosque in Jerusalem which is regarded as the third greatest mosque in the Islamic world; the first and second being Al-Masjid Al-Haram at Makka and the mosque of the Prophet sawat Al-Madina, respectively.

Ø Banu Al-Asfar : The Byzantines.

Ø Balâm : Means an ox.

Ø Barrah : Pious.

Ø Baqi’ : The cemetery of the people of Al-Madina; many of the companions of the Prophet saware buried in it.

Ø Bid’a : Heresy (or any innovated practice in religion).

Ø Bint Labun : Two-year-old she-camel.

Ø Bint Makhad : One-year-old she-camel.

Ø Bu’ath : A place about two miles from Al-Madina where a battle took place between the Ansâr tribes of Al-Aus and Al-Khazraj before Islam.

Ø Buraq : An animal bigger than a donkey and smaller than a horse on which the Prophet saw went for the Mi’raj. The Ascent of the Prophet saw to the heavens.

Ø Burd, Burda : A black square narrow dress.

Ø Burnus : A hooded cloak.

Ø Burud : Plural of Barid which means sixteen Farsakhs.

Ø Buthan : A valley in Al-Madina.

Ø Caliph : The Imâm or the Muslim ruler.

Ø Caliphate : The Muslim state.

Ø Daghâbis : Snake cucumbers.It is a plural of Daghbûs.

Ø Daiyân : Allah; it literally means the One Who judges people from their deeds after calling them to account.

Ø Dâniq : A coin equal to one sixth of a Dirham.

Ø Dâr-al-Qadâ’ : Justice House (court).

Ø Day of Nafr : The 12th or 13th of Dhul-Hîjja when the pilgrims leave Mina after performing all the ceremonies of Hajj at ‘Arafat, Al-Muzdalifa and Mina.

Ø Dhat-un-Nitâqain : Asma’, the daughter of Abu Bakr. It literally mean a woman with two belts. She was named so by the Prophet saw.

Ø Dhaw-ûl-Arhâm : Kindred of blood.

Ø Dhu-Mahram : A male, whom a woman can never marry because of close relationship (e.g. a brother, a father, an uncle etc.); or her own husband.

Ø Dhû-Tuwa : A well-known well in Makka. In the life-time of the Prophet saw Makka was a small city and this well was outside its precincts. Now-a-days Makka is a larger city and the well is within its boundaries.

Ø Dhimmî : A non-Muslim living under the protection of an Islamic government.

Ø Dhûl-Hîjja : The twelfth month in the Islamic calendar. Dhûl-Hulaifa : The Miqât of the people of Al-Madina now called ‘Abyâr ‘Ali.

Ø Dhûl-Khalâsa : Al-Ka’ba Al-Yamaniya. (A house in Yemen where idols used to be worshipped. It belonged to the tribe of Khath’am and Bajaila).

Ø Dhûl-Qa’da : The eleventh month of the Islamic calendar.

Ø Dhûl Qarnain : A great ruler in the past who ruled all over the world, and was a true believer. His story is mentioned in the Qur’ân.(18:83)

Ø Dîbâj : Pure silk cloth.

Ø Dinâr : An ancient gold coin.

Ø Dirham : A silver coin weighing 50 grains of barley with cut ends.

Ø Diya (Diyât plural) : Blood-money (for wounds, killing etc.), compensation paid by the killer to the relatives of the victim (in unintentional cases).

Ø Duha : Forenoon.

Ø ‘Eid-al-Adhâ : The four day festival of Muslims starting on the tenth day of Dhul-Hîjja (month).

Ø ‘Eid-al-Fitr : The three day festival of Muslims starting from the first day of Shawwâl, the month that follows Ramadân immediately. Fitr Iiterally means ‘breaking the fast.’ Muslims fast the whole of Ramadân, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and when Shawwâl comes, they break their fast.

Ø Fadak : A town near Al-Madina.

Ø Fâhish : One who talks evil.

Ø Fai’ : War booty gained without fighting.

Ø Fajr : Dawn or early morning before sunrise, or morning prayer.

Ø Faqîh : A learned man who can give religious verdicts.

Ø Farâ’id : Share fixed for the relatives of a deceased. Such shares are prescribed in the Qur’ân [4:11, 12, 176] 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, 1/6 1/8, 2/3).

Ø Faraq : A bowl for measuring.

Ø Farîda : (Plural: Farâ’id) an enjoined duty.

Ø Farruj : A Qabâ’ opened at the back.

Ø Farsakh : A distance of three miles : 1 mile = 6000 Dora = 1760 yards.

Ø Fatâh : A female slave or a young lady.

Ø Fidya : Compensation for a missed or wrongly practised religious ceremony, usually in the form of money or foodstuff or offering (animal).

Ø Gharâr : The sale of what is not present; e.g. of unfished fish.

Ø Ghâzî : A Muslim warrior returning after participation in Jihâd (Islamic holy war).

Ø Ghazwâ : (Plural : Ghazawât); A holy fighting in the cause of Allah consisting of a large army unit with the Prophet saw himself leading the army.

Ø Ghira : This word covers a wide meaning : jealousy as regards women, and also it is a feeling of great fury and anger when one’s honour and prestige is injured or challenged.

Ø Ghulul : Stealing from the war booty before its distribution.

Ø Ghuraf : Special abodes.

Ø Ghusl : Taking a bath in ceremonial way. This is necessary for one who is Junub, and also on other occasions. This expression ‘taking a bath’ is used in this book with the special meaning of Ghusl mentioned here.

Ø Hadath (Small) : Passing wind or urine or answering the call of nature.

Ø Hadath (Big) : Sexual discharge.

Ø Hady : An animal (a camel, a cow, a sheep or a goat) offered as a sacrifice by the pilgrims.

Ø Hadîth : The statements of the Prophet saw ; i.e. his sayings, deeds, and approvals, etc..

Ø Hais : A dish made of cooking-butter, dates and cheese.

Ø Hajj : Pilgrimage to Makka.

Ø Al-Hajj-al-Akbar : The day of Nahr (i.e the 10th of Dhul-Hîjja).

Ø Hajj-al-Asghar : ‘Umra.

Ø Hajjat-ul-Wadâ’ : The last Hajj of the Prophet saw, the year before he died.

Ø Hajj Mabrûr : Hajj accepted by Allah for being perfectly performed according to the Prophet’s Sunna and with legally earned money.

Ø Hajj At-Tamattu’ and Al-Qirân : Hajj performed with ‘Umra preceding it. For details, see Sahih Al-Bukhari, the Book of Hajj, Vol.2.

Ø Hajjâm : One who performs cupping.

Ø Halal : Lawful.

Ø Hanatâ : An expression used when you don’t want to call somebody by her name. (It is used for calling a female).

Ø Hanif : Pure Islamic Monotheism (Worshipping Allah Alone and nothing else).

Ø Harâm : Unlawful, forbidden and punishable from the viewpoint of religion..

Ø Haram : Sanctuaries of Makka and Al-Madina.

Ø Hâraurâ : A town in Iraq.

Ø Harba : A short spear.

Ø Harj : Killing.

Ø Harra : A well-known rocky place in Al-Madina covered with black stones.

Ø Hasîr : A mat that is made of leaves of date-palms and is as long as (or longer than) a man’s stature.

Ø Hayâ’ : This term covers a large number of concepts. It may mean ‘modesty’, ‘self-respect’, ‘bashfulness’, ‘honour’, etc. Haya’ is of two kinds: good and bad; the good Hayâ’ is to be ashamed to commit a crime or a thing which Allah ÚÒ æ Ìá and His Messenger saw has forbidden, and bad Hayâ’ is to be ashamed to do a thing, which Allah and His Messenger saw ordered to do. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 1, Hadîth No.8).

Ø Hawâla : The transference of a debt from one person to another. It is an agreement whereby a debtor is released from a debt by another becoming responsible for it.

Ø Hawâzin : A tribe of Quraish.

Ø Henna : A kind of plant used for dyeing hair etc.

Ø Hilab : A kind of scent.

Ø Himâ : A private pasture.

Ø Himyân : A kind of belt, part of which serves as a purse to keep money in it.

Ø Hiqqa : A three-year-old she-camel.

Ø Hira’ : A well-known cave in a mountain near Makka.

Ø Hourîs : Very fair females created by Allah as such not from the off-spring of Adam, with intense black irises of their eyes and intense white scleras.

Ø Hubal : The name of an idol in the Ka’ba in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance.

Ø Hublâ : A kind of desert tree.

Ø Hudâ : Chanting of camel-drivers keeping time of camel’s walk.

Ø Hudûd (plural of Hadd) : Allah’s boundary limits for Halâl (lawful) and Haram (unlawful).

Ø Hujra : Courtyard of a dwelling place, or a room (See Lisân-e-Arab).

Ø Hukm : A judgement of legal decision (especially of Allah)

Ø Hums : The tribe of Quraish, their offspring and their allies were called Hums. This word implies enthusiasm and strictness. The Hums used to say, “We are the people of Allah.” They thought themselves superior to the other people.

Ø Hunain : A valley between Makka and Ta’if where the battle took place between the Prophet saw and Quraish pagans.

Ø Hanût : A kind of scent used for embalming the dead.

Ø ‘Iddah : Allah’s prescribed period for divorce and marriage, etc. (See the Qur’ân Sûrat 65).

Ø Iftar : The opposite of fasting, (breaking the fast).

Ø Ihrâm ( ÇÍÑÇã ) : A state in which one is prohibited to practise certain deeds that are lawful at other times. The ceremonies of ‘Umra and Hajj are performed during such state. When one assumes this state, the first thing one should do is to express mentally and orally one’s intention to assume this state for the purpose of performing Hajj or ‘Umra. Then Talbîya is recited, two sheets of unstitched clothes are the only clothes one wears, Izâr: worn below one’s waist and the other (2) Rida: worn round the upper part of the body.

Ø Ihsân : The highest level of deeds and worship, (perfection i.e. when you worship Allah or do deeds, consider yourself as if you see Him and if you cannot achieve this feeling or attitude, then you must bear in mind that He sees you).

Ø Ilâ’ : The oath taken by a husband that he would not approach his wife for a certain period.

Ø Iliyâ : Jerusalem.

Ø Imâm : The person who leads others in the prayer or the Muslim Caliph (or ruler).

Ø Imân : Faith, Belief.

Ø Imlâs : An abortion caused by being beaten over one’s (a pregnant wife’s) abdomen.

Ø Inbijâniya : A woolen garment without marks.

Ø Iqâma : The statements of the Adhân are recited reduced so that the statements that are expressed twice in the Adhân are recited once in Iqâma except the last utterance of ‘Allahu-Akbar,’ The prayer is offered immediately after Iqâma has been pronounced.

Ø Iqamat-as-Salât : The offering of the prayers perfectly. This is not understood by many Muslims. It means: Each and every Muslim, male or female, is obliged to offer his prayers regularly five times a day at the specified times; the male in the mosque in congregation and the female at home. As the Prophet saw has said: “Order your children for Salât (prayer) at the age of seven and beat them (about it) at the age of ten”. The chief (of a family, town, tribe, etc.) and the Muslim ruler of a country are held responsible before Allah in case of non-fulfilment of this obligation by the Muslims under his authority. (A)To offer the prayers in a way just as Prophet Muhammad saw offered it with all its rules and regulations, as he saw said: “Offer your prayers the way you see me offering them.” Please see Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 1 for the Prophet’s way of praying, in the book of characteristics of the prayer and that the prayer (Salât) begins with Takbîr (Allahu-Akbar) with the recitation of Sûrat Al-Fatiha etc. along with its various postures, standing, bowing, prostrations, sitting etc. and it ends with Taslîm.

Ø ‘Ishâ’ : Late evening prayer. Its time starts about one and a half hours after sunset, till the middle of night.

Ø Ishtimal-as-Sammâ : The wearing of clothes in the following two ways:

1. To cover one shoulder with a garment and leave the other bare.
2. To wrap oneself in a garment while sitting in such a way that nothing of that garment would cover one’s private parts.

Ø Istabraq : Thick Dibaj (pure silk cloth).

Ø Istihâda : Bleeding from the womb of a woman in between her ordinary periods. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 1, Hadîth No. 303 and Chapter No. 10, Page No. 183).

Ø Istihsân : To give a verdict with a proof from one’s heart [only) with satisfaction, and one cannot express it (only Abû Hanifa and his pupils say so but the rest of the Muslim religious scholars of Sunna (and they are the majority) do not agree to it].

Ø Istikhâra : A prayer consisting of two Rakât in which the praying person appeals to Allah to guide him on the right way, regarding a certain deed or situation with which one is confronted. (See Hadîth No. 263, Vol. 2, Hadîth No.391, Vol. 8, Hadîth No. 487, Vol. 9, Sahih Al-Bukhari).

Ø Istisqâ’ : A prayer consisting of two Rakât, invoking Allah for rain in seasons of drought.

Ø I’tikâf : Seclusion in a mosque for the purpose of worshipping Allah only. The one in such a state should not have sexual relations with his wife, and one is not allowed to leave the mosque except for a very short period, and that is only for very urgent necessity e.g. answering the call of nature or joining a funeral procession etc.

Ø Izâr : A sheet worn below the waist to cover the lower half of the body.

Ø Jadha’a : A four-year-old she-camel.

Ø Jalîl : A kind of good smelling grass grown in Makka.

Ø Jam’ : Al-Muzdalifa, a well-known place near Makka.

Ø Jamra : A small stone-built pillar in a walled place. There are three Jamras situated at Mina. One of the ceremonies of Hajj is to throw pebbles at these Jamras on the four days of ‘Eid-al-Adha at Mina.

Ø Jamrât-al-‘Aqaba : One of the three stone-built pillars situated at Mina. It is situated at the entrance of Mina from the direction of Makka.

Ø Janâba : The state of a person after having sexual intercourse with his wife or after having a sexual discharge in a wet dream. A person in such a state should perform Ghusl (i.e. have a bath) or do Tayammum, if a bath is not possible.

Ø Janîb : A good kind of date.

Ø Jihâd : Holy fighting in the Cause of Allah or any other kind of effort to make Allah’s Word (i.e. Islam) superior. Jihâd is regarded as one of the fundamentals of Islam.

Ø Jimâr : Plural of Jamra.

Ø Jinn : A creation, created by Allah from fire, like human beings from mud, and angels from light.

Ø Jîzya : Head tax imposed by Islam on all non-Muslims living under the protection of an Islamic government. [See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 4, Page No.. 251 Chapter 21, and Ahadîth No. 384, 385 and 386.]

Ø Jubba : A cloak.

Ø Jumada-ath-Thâniya : Sixth month of the Islamic calendar.

Ø Jumu’a : Friday.

Ø Junub : A person who is in a state of Janâba.

Ø Jurhum : Name of an Arab tribe.

Ø Ka’ba : A square stone building in Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the great mosque at Makka) towards which all Muslims turn there faces in prayer.

Ø Kafâla : The pledge given by somebody to a creditor to guarantee that the debtor will be present at a certain specific place to pay his debt or fine, or to undergo a punishment etc.

Ø Kafir : The one who disbelieves in Allah, His Messengers, all the angels, all the holy Books, Day of Resurrection and in the Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainments).

Ø Kanz : Hoarded up gold, silver and money, the Zakât of which has not been paid. (See the Qur’ân 9:34).

Ø Kasafat : An Arabic verb meaning “eclipsed”, used for a solar eclipse: Ash-Shamsu Kasafat (the sun eclipsed).

Ø Katm : A plant used for dyeing hair.

Ø Kauthar : See Al-Kauthar.

Ø Khadîra : A kind of vegetation.

Ø Khaibar : A well-known town in the north of Al-Madina.

Ø Khalîl : The one whose love is mixed with one’s heart and it is superior to a friend or beloved. The Prophet saw had only one Khalîl, i.e. Allah, but he had many friends.

Ø Khaluq : A kind of perfume.

Ø Khamîsa : A black woollen square blanket with marks on it.

Ø Kharâj : Zakât imposed on the yield of the land (1/10th or 1/20th).

Ø Khasafa : An Arabic word meaning “eclipsed” used for lunar eclipse: Al-Qamaru Khasafa (the moon eclipsed).

Ø Khawârij : The people who dissented from the religion and disagreed with the rest of the Muslims.

Ø Khazîr : A special type of dish prepared from barley-flour and meat-soup.

Ø Khazîra : A special dish prepared from white flour, fat etc.

Ø Khuff : Leather socks.

Ø Khul’ : (A kind of divorce) the parting of a wife from her husband by giving him a certain compensation, or to return back the Mahr which he gave her.

Ø Khumra : A small mat just sufficient for the face and the hands (on prostrating during prayers).

Ø Khums : One-fifth of war booty given in Allah’s Cause etc. (The Qur’ân 8:41).

Ø Khutba : Sermon (religious talk).

Ø Khutba of Nikâh : A speech delivered at the time of concluding the marriage contract.

Ø Kuhl : Antimony eye powder.

Ø Kûfa : A town in Iraq.

Ø Kufr : It is basically disbelief in any of the articles of Islamic Faith and they are: to believe in Allah (God), His angels, His Messengers, His revealed Books, the Day of Resurrection, and Al-Qadar (i.e. Divine Preordain-ments whatever Allah has ordained must come to pass).

Ø Kuniya : Calling a man, O ‘father of so-and-so!’ Or calling a woman, O’mother of so-and- so!’ This is a custom of the Arabs.

Ø Kusûf : Solar eclipse.

Ø La Ilaha ill Allâh : None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.

Ø Labbaika wa Sa’daika : I respond to Your Call; I am obedient to Your Orders..

Ø Li’ân : An oath which is taken by both the wife and the husband when he accuses his wife of committing illegal sexual intercourse. (The Qur’ân, Sûrat Nûr,24 :6,7,8,9,).

Ø Luqata : Article or a thing (a pouch or a purse tied with a string) found by somebody other than the owner who has lost it.

Ø Mabrûr (Hajj) : Accepted by Allah for being perfectly performed according to the Prophet’s legal ways and with legally earned money.

Ø Maghâfîr : A bad smelling gum.

Ø Maghrib : Sunset, evening prayer.

Ø Mahram : See Dhu-Mahram.

Ø Mahr : Bridal-money given by the husband to the wife at the time of marriage.

Ø Makrûh : Not approved of, undesirable from the point of view of religion, although not punishable.

Ø Mamlûk : A male slave.

Ø Manâsik : [i.e. Ihram, Tawaf of the Ka’ba and Sâ’y of “As-Safâ” and “Al-Marwa”, stay at ‘Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina, Ramy of Jamrâts, slaughtering of Hady (animal) etc. For details, see The Book of Hajj and ‘Umra, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol.2-3.

Ø Manîha (plural :Manâ’îh): A sort of gift in the form of a she-camel or a sheep which is given to somebody temporarily so that its milk may be used and then the animal is returned to its owner.

Ø Maqam Ibrahim : (The place) the stone on which AbrahamÚáíå ÇáÓáÇã stood while he and IshmaelÚáíå ÇáÓáÇã were building the Ka’ba..

Ø Al-Maqam-al-Mahmûd : The highest place in Paradise, which will be granted to Prophet Muhammad saw and none else.

Ø Mar’âs : A place nearer to Mina than Ash-Shajara.

Ø Al-Marwa : A mountain in Makka, neighbouring the great mosque (i.e. Al-Masjid-al-Haram)

Ø Mâshâ’ Allah : An Arabic sentence meaning literally, “What Allah wish,” and it indicates a good omen.

Ø Masjid : Mosque.

Ø Mashruba : Attic room.

Ø Mathânî : Oft repeated Verses of the Qur’ân, and that is Sûrat Al-Fatiha, recited repeatedly in the prayer.

Ø Maulâ : It has many meanings. Some are: a manumitted slave, or a master or the Lord (Allah).

Ø Maulâya : My lord, my master (an expression used when a slave addresses his master (also used for freed slave).

Ø Mayâthir : Silk cushions.

Ø Mijanna : A place at Makka.

Ø Mina : A place outside Makka on the road to ‘Arafat. It is five miles away from Makka and about 10 miles from ‘Arafât.

Ø Miqât (plural Mawâqît) : One of the several places specified by the Prophet saw for the people to assume Ihrâm at, on their way to Makka, when intending to perform Hajj or ‘Umra.

Ø Miracles : Of the Prophet saw . See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol 1, ‘Introduction’..

Ø Mi’râj : The ascent of the Prophet saw to the heavens. (See Hadîth No. 345, Vol. 1, Hadîth No. 429, vol. 4 and Hadîth No. 227, Vol. 5, Sahih Al-Bukhari). [Also see (V. 53:12) the Qur’ân]

Ø Mirbad : A place where dates are dried.

Ø Misr : Egypt.

Ø Miswâk : A tooth brush made of Arak-tree roots.

Ø Mithqâl : A special kind of weight (equals 4 2/7 grams approx., used for weighing gold). It may be less or more. [20 Mithqâl = 94 grams approx.]

Ø Muhkam : Qur’ânic Verses the orders of which are not cancelled (abrogated).

Ø Mu’adh-dhin : A call-maker who pronounces the Adhân loudly calling people to come and perform the prayer.

Ø Mu’awwidhât : i.e. Sûrat Al-Falaq (113) and Sûrat An-Nas (114). [The Qur’ân].

Ø Mubashshirât : Glad tidings. [See the F.N. of (V. 10:64), Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 9, Hadîth No. 119].

Ø Mubiqât : Great destructive sins.

Ø Mudabbar : A slave who is promised by his master to be manumitted after the latter’s death.

Ø Mudd : A measure of two thirds of a kilogram (approx.) It may be less or more.

Ø Mufassal or Mufassalat : The Sûrah starting from ‘Qaf to the end of the Holy Qur’ân (i.e. from No. 50 to the end of the Qur’ân 114).

Ø Muhâjir : Anyone of the early Muslims who had migrated from any place to Al-Madina in the life-time of the Prophet saw before the conquest of Makka and also the one who emigrates for the sake of Allah and Islam and also the one who quits all those things which Allah has forbidden.

Ø Muhrim : One who assumes the state of Ihrâm for the purpose of performing the Hajj or ‘Umra.

Ø Muhrima : A female in the state of Ihrâm.

Ø Muhsar : A Muhrim who intends to perform the Hajj or ‘Umra but cannot because of some obstacle.

Ø Mujâhid : A Muslim warrior in Jihâd (Plural: Mujahidûn).

Ø Mujazziz : A Qâ’if: a learned man who reads the foot and hand marks.

Ø Mujtahidûn : Independent religious scholars who do not follow religious opinions except with proof from the Qur’an and the Prophet’s Sunna, from all over the Muslim world.

Ø Mukatab : A slave (male or female) who binds himself (or herself) to pay a certain ransom for his (or her) freedom.

Ø Mulâ’ana : The act of performing Li’ân.

Ø Mulhidûn : Heretical.

Ø Muqaiyar : A name of a pot in which alcoholic drinks used to be prepared.

Ø Musalla : A praying place.

Ø Mushrikûn : Polytheists, pagans, idolaters and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and His Messenger Muhammad saw

Ø Mustahada : A woman who has bleeding from the womb in between her ordinary periods.

Ø Mutafahhish : A person who conveys evil talk.

Ø Mu’takif : One who is in a state of I’tikaf.

Ø Mutashâbihât : Qur’ânic Verses which are not clear and are difficult to understand.

Ø Mutras : A Persian word meaning “don’t be afraid.”

Ø Muttaqûn : Pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained).

Ø Muzâbana : The sale of fresh dates for dried dates by measure, and the sale of fresh grapes for dried grapes by measure. In both cases the dried fruits are measured while the fresh ones are only estimated as they are still on the trees.

Ø Muzaffat : A name of a pot in which alcoholic drinks used to be prepared.

Ø Muzdalifa : A place between ‘Arafat and Mina where the pilgrims while returning from ‘Arafat, have to stop and stay for the whole night or greater part of it (the night), between the ninth and tenth of Dhul-Hîjja and to perform the Maghrib and ‘Ishâ’ prayers (together) there.

Ø Muharram : The first month of the Islamic calendar.

Ø Nabîdh : Water in which dates or grapes etc. are soaked and is not yet fermented.

Ø Nafr (day of) : The 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hîjja when the pilgrims leave Mina after performing all the ceremonies of Hajj at ‘Arafat, Al-Muzdalifa and Mina.

Ø Nahd : Sharing the expenses of a journey or putting the journey food of the travellers together to be distributed among them in equal shares.

Ø Nahr : (Literal: slaughtering of the camels only and is done by cutting carotid artery at the root of the neck); the day of Nahr is the tenth of Dhul-Hîjja on which pilgrims slaughter their sacrifices.

Ø Nâdîha : A camel used for agricultural purposes.

Ø Nâdy : A part of an arrow.

Ø Namîma : (Calumnies) conveyance of disagreeable false information from one person to another to create hostility between them.

Ø Naqîb (s) : A person heading a group of six persons in an expedition (tribal chiefs).

Ø Naqîr : A name of a pot in which alcoholic drinks used to be prepared.

Ø Nasl : A part of an arrow.

Ø Nawâfil : (plural of Nafila), Optional practice of worship in contrast to obligatory (Farîda).

Ø Nikâh : Marriage (wedlock) according to Islamic law.

Ø Nisâb : Minimum amount of property liable to payment of the Zakât e.g. Nisâb of gold is twenty (20) Mithqal i.e. approx. 94 grams; Nisâb of silver is two hundred (200) Dirhams, i.e. approx. 640 grams; Nisâb of food-grains and fruit is 5 Awsuq i.e. 673.5 kgms. Nisâb of camels is 5 camels; Nisâb of cows is 5 cows; and Nisâb of sheep is 40 sheep, etc.

Ø Nûn : Fish.

Ø Nusk : Religious act of worship.

Ø Nusub : Singular of Ansâb. An-Nusub were stone alters at fixed places or graves, etc., whereon sacrifices were slaughtered during fixed periods of occasions and seasons in the name of idols, jinns, angels, pious men, saints, etc., in order to honour them, or to expect some benefit from them.

Ø Nusuk : A sacrifice.

Ø Prophet : A person who is inspired divinely.

Ø Qabâ’ : An outer garment with full length sleeves.

Ø Qadar : Divine Pre-Ordainment.

Ø Lailat-ul-Qadr : One of the odd last ten nights of the month of fasting (i.e. Ramadân), Allah ÊÚÇáì describes it as better than one thousand months, and the one who worships Allah during it by performing optional prayers and reciting the Holy Qur’ân, etc. will get a reward better than worshipping Him for one thousand months (i.e. 83 years and four months).[See the Qur’ân Sûrat 97 (V.97: 1-5)]. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadîth No. 231 and Chapter No.2).

Ø Qalîb : A well.

Ø Qâri’ : Early Muslim religious scholar was called Qurrâ’ (plural of Qarî). (This word is also used for a person who knows the Qur’ân by heart). The plural is Qurrâ’. The Qurrâ’ were teachers of the early Muslims.

Ø Qarin : One who performs Hajj-al-Qiran.

Ø Qarn-al-Manazil : The Miqât of the people of Najd. It is situated on the way to Makka.

Ø Qasab : Pipes made of gold, pearls and other precious stones.

Ø Qatîfa : Thick soft cloth.

Ø Qattât : A person who conveys information from someone to another with the intention of causing harm and enmity between them. (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 8, Hadîth No.82).

Ø Qiblah : The direction in which all Muslims turn their faces in prayers and that direction is towards the Ka’ba in Makka (Saudi Arabia).

Ø Qîl and Qâl : Sinful, useless talk (e.g. backbiting, lies, etc.).

Ø Qintâr : A weight-measure for food-grains, etc., e.g. wheat, maize, oat, barley.

Ø Qirâm : A thin marked woolen curtain.

Ø Qirât : A special weight; sometimes a very great weight like Uhud mountain. 1 Qirat = 1/2 Daniq & 1 Daniq = 1/6 Dirham.

Ø Qissî : A kind of cloth containing silk; some say it is called so because it is manufactured in Egypt at a place called Qiss.

Ø Qithâm : A plant disease which causes fruit to fall before ripening.

Ø Qiyâm : The standing posture in prayer.

Ø Qiyâs : Verdicts and judgements given by the Islamic religious scholars. These are given on the following proofs respectively:- From the Qur’ân;

(A) From the Prophet’s “Sunna.”

(B) From the unanimously accepted verdict of the Mujtahidûn;

(C) Qiyâs: i.e. the verdict given by a Mujtahid who considered the case similar in comparison with a case judged by the Prophet saw . Qiyâs is not to be practised except if the judgement of the case is not found in the first three above mentioned proofs, A, B and C.

Ø Qubâ’ : A place on the outskirts of Al-Madina. The Prophet saw established a mosque there, which bears the same name. A visit to that mosque on Saturday forenoon and offering a two Rak’ât prayer is regarded as a performance of ‘Umra in reward according to the Prophet’s saying.

Ø Qudhadh : A part of an arrow.

Ø Qumqum : A narrow headed vessel.

Ø Qunut : Invocation in the prayer.

Ø Quraish : One of the greatest tribes in Arabia in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance. The Prophet Muhammad saw belonged to this tribe, which had great powers spiritually and financially both before and after Islam came.

Ø Quraishi : A person belonging to the Quraish (well-known Arab) tribe.

Ø Rabb : Lord, Owner (it is also one of the Names of Allah).

Ø Rabbuk : Your Lord, Your Master.

Ø Rabî’-ul-Awwal : Third month of the Islamic calendar.

Ø Rahila : A she-camel used for riding. (Literally means: a mount to ride).

Ø Raiyan : The name of one of the gates of Paradise through which the people who often observe fasting will enter.

Ø Rajab : The seventh month of the Islamic calendar.

Ø Rajaz : Name of poetic metre.

Ø Rak’â : The prayer of Muslims consists of Rak’ât (singular-Rak’â), which consists of one standing, one bowing and two prostrations.

Ø Ramadân : The month of fasting. It is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. In it the Holy Qur’ân started to be revealed to our Prophet saw and in it occurs the night of Qadr and in it also occurred the great decisive battle of Badr.

Ø Ramal : Fast walking accompanied by the movements of the arms and legs to show one’s physical strength. This is to be observed in the first three rounds of the Tawâf around the Ka’ba, and is to be done by the men only and not by the women.

Ø Ramy : The throwing of pebbles at the Jimar at Mina.

Ø Ribâ’ (Usury) : Usury which is of two major kinds: (a) Ribâ’ Nasî’a, i.e. interest on lent money; (b) Ribâ’ Fadl, i.e. taking a superior thing of the same kind of goods by giving more of the same kind of goods of inferior quality, e.g., dates of superior quality for dates of inferior quality in greater amount. Islam strictly forbids all kinds of usury.

Ø Ridâ’ : A piece of cloth (sheet etc.) worn around the upper part of the body.

Ø Rikâz : Buried wealth (from the pre-Islamic period).

Ø Ruh-ul-Lah : According to the early religious scholars from among the companions of the Prophet saw and their students and the Mujtahidûn, there is a rule to distinguish between the two nouns in the genitive construction..

(A) When one of the two nouns is Allah, and the other is a person of a thing, e.g.,

(i) Allah’s House (Bait-ul-Lah ),

(ii) Allah’s Messenger;

(iii) Allah’s slave (‘Abdullah );

(iv) Allah’s spirit (Ruh-ul- Lah ) etc.

The rule of the above words is that the second noun, e.g., House, Messenger, slave, spirit, etc. is created by Allah and is honourable in His Sight and similarly Allah’s spirit may be understood as the spirit of Allah, in fact, it is a soul created by Allah, i.e. Jesus, and it was His Word: “Be!”, – and he was created (like the creation of Adam).

(B) But when one of the two is Allah and the second is neither a person nor a thing, then it is not a created thing but is a quality of Allah, e.g.,

(i) Allah’s Knowledge (‘Ilmullah );

(ii) Allah’s Life (Hayatullah ); (iii) Allah’s Statement (Kalamullah );

(iii) Allah’s Self (Dhatullah )etc.

Ø Ruqba : A kind of gift in the form of a house given to somebody to live in as long as he is alive.

Ø Sâ’ : A measure that equals four Mudds (3 kg. approx).

Ø Sab’a-al-Mathânî : The seven repeatedly recited Verses i.e. Sûrat Al-Fatiha.

Ø Sabâhâh : An exclamation indicating an appeal for help.

Ø Sâbi’ûn : A passed nation used to live in Iraq say Lâ Ilâha ill Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) and used to read Az-Zabur (The Psalms of the Sâbi’ûns) and they were neither Jews nor Christians.

Ø Sa’dan : A thorny plant suitable for grazing animals.

Ø Sadaqâ : Anything given in charity.

Ø As-Safa and Al-Marwa : Two mountains at Makka neighbouring Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (the great mosque) to the east. One who performs ‘Umra and Hajj should walk seven times between these two mountains and that is called ‘Sâ’y’.

Ø Sahba : A place near Khaibar.

Ø Sahw : Forgetting (here it means forgetting how many Rak’ât a person has prayed in which case he should perform two prostrations of Sahw).

Ø Sahûr : A meal taken at night before the Fajr (morning) prayer by a fasting person.

Ø Sa’y : The going for seven times between the mountains of As-Safâ and Al-Marwa in Makka during the performance of Hajj and ‘Umra.

Ø Sayyid : Master (it is also used as a title name of the descendants of the Prophet saw ).

Ø Sayyidi : My master.

Ø Sakînah : Tranquillity, calmness, peace and reassurance etc.

Ø Salab : Belongings (arms, horse, etc.) of a deceased warrior killed in a battle.

Ø Salaf : A sale in which the price is paid at once for goods to be delivered later.

Ø Salam : Synonym of Salaf.

Ø Sami’ Allahu Liman Hamidah : Allah heard him who sent his praises to Him.

Ø Samur : A kind of tree.

Ø Sanah : Means ‘good’ in the Ethiopian language.

Ø Sarîya : A small army-unit sent by the Prophet saw for Jihâd, without his participation in it.

Ø Sarîf : A place six miles away from Makka.

Ø Sawîq : A kind of mash made of powdered roasted wheat or barley grain (also with sugar and dates).

Ø Sha’bân : The eighth month of the Islamic calendar.

Ø Shâm : The region comprising Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan.

Ø Shawwâl : The tenth month of the Islamic calendar.

Ø Shighâr : A type of marriage in which persons exchange their daughters or sisters in marriage without Mahr.

Ø Shirak : A leather strap.

Ø Shirk : Polytheism and it is to worship others along with Allah. (See the Appendix II at the end of the Book).

Ø Shuf’a : Pre-emption.

Ø Siddiq and Siddiqûn : Those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them (See the Qur’ân 4:69).

Ø Sidr : Lote tree (or Nabk tree).

Ø Sidrat-ul-Muntahâ : A Nabk tree over the seventh heaven near the Paradise (the lote tree of the utmost boundary)

Ø Siffin (battle of) : A battle that took place between ‘Ali’s followers and Mu’awiya’s followers at the river of the Euphrates in ‘Iraq.

Ø Siwak : A piece of a root of a tree called Al-Arak, used as a toothbrush.

Ø Subhân Allah : To honour Allah and make Him free from all that (unsuitable evil things) that are ascribed to Him (or Glorified be Allah).

Ø Suhûliya : A cotton cloth, its name is derived from the name of a village in Yemen called Suhul.

Ø Sundus : A kind of silk cloth.

Ø Sunna (legal ways) : Literally means: legal way or ways, orders, acts of worship and statements etc. of the Prophet saw, that have become models to be followed by the Muslims.

Ø Sutra : An object like a pillar, wall or stick, a spear etc., the height of which should not be less than a foot and must be in front of a praying person to act as a symbolical barrier between him and the others.

Ø Tâba (Taiba) : Another name for Al-Madina.

Ø Tabûk : A well-known town about 700 kilometers north of Al-Madina.

Ø Tâghût : The word Tâghût covers a wide range meanings: It means anything worshipped other than the Real God (Allah), i.e. all the false deities. It may be Satan, devils, idols, stones, sun, stars, angels, human beings e.g. Jesus, Messengers of Allah, who were falsely worshipped and taken as Tâghûts. Likewise saints, graves, rulers, leaders, etc., are falsely worshipped, and wrongly followed.

Ø Tahajjud : Night optional prayers offered at any time after Ishâ prayers and before the Fajr prayer.

Ø Tahnîk : It is the Islamic customary process of chewing a piece of date etc.and putting a part of its juice in the child’s mouth and pronouncing Adhân in child’s ears, etc. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, the Book of ‘Aqîqa, Vol. 7, Page No. 272).

Ø Taiba : One of the names of Al-Madina city.

Ø Tâ’if : A well-known town near Makka.

Ø Takbîr : Saying Allahu-Akbar (Allah is the Most Great).

Ø Takbîra : A single utterance of Allahu-Akbar

Ø Talbîna : A dish prepared from flour and honey.

Ø Talbîya : Saying Labbaik, Allahumma Labbaik (O Allah! I am obedient to Your Orders, I respond to Your Call).

Ø Taqlîd : Putting coloured garlands around the necks of Budn (animals for sacrifice).

Ø Taribat Yamînuka : (May your right hand be in dust). It is an expression of exhortation, meaning, if you do not do what I tell you, you will lose great advantage and win nothing but dust.

Ø Tarwiya (day of) : The eighth day of Dhul-Hîjja, when pilgrims start going to Mina.

Ø Tarâwîh : Optional prayers offered after the Ishâ prayers on the nights of Ramadân. These may be performed individually or in congregation.

Ø Tashah-hud : The recitation of the invocation: At-tahiyyatu Lillahi… (upto) wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul-ullah”, while in Qu’ud, i.e. sitting posture in prayer. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 1, Hadîth No. 794, and also see the footnote of Page No. 56, Vol. 5 of Sahih Al-Bukhari).

Ø Tashrîq (days of) : 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hîjja.

Ø Tashmît : May Allah bestow His Blessings upon you.

Ø Taslîm : On finishing the prayer, one turns one’s face to the right and then to the left saying, Assalamu ‘Alaikum wa Rahmatullah (Peace and Mercy of Allah be on you), and this action is called Taslîm.

Ø Tauhîd : It has three aspects; A, B and C:

(A) Oneness of the Lordship of Allah; Tauhîd-ar-Rububiyya: To believe that there is only one Lord for all the universe, its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer, and the Giver of Security, etc., and that is Allah.

(B) Oneness of the worship of Allah; Tauhîd-al-Uluhiyya: To believe that none has the right to be worshipped [e.g. praying, invoking, asking for help (from the unseen), swearing, slaughtering sacrifices, giving charity, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.], but Allah.

(C) Oneness of the Names and the Qualities of Allah;

Ø Tauhîd-al-Asmâ was-Sifat: To believe that : (i) we must not name or qualify Allah except with what He or His Messenger saw has named or qualified Him; (ii) none can be named or qualified with the Names or Qualifications of Allah; e.g. Al-Karim; (iii) we must confirm Allah’s all qualifications which Allah has stated in His Book (the Qur’ân) or mentioned through His Messenger (Muhammad saw ) without changing them or ignoring them completely or twisting the meanings or giving resemblance to any of the created things; e.g. Allah is present over His Throne as mentioned in the Qur’ân. (V. 20 : 5): “The Most Beneficent (i.e. Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne” over the seventh heaven; and He only comes down over the first (nearest) heaven (to us) during the day of ‘Arafât (Hajj, i.e. 9th Dhul-Hijja) and also during the last third part of the night, as mentioned by the Prophet saw , but He is with us by His Knowledge only, not by His Personal Self (Bi-Dhatihi), “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” (The Qur’ân, V. 42:11). This holy Verse confirms the quality of hearing and the quality of sight for Allah without resemblance to others; and likewise He also said: “To one whom I have created with Both My Hands,” (V. 38:75); and He also said: “The Hand of Allah is over their hands.”: (V. 48:10, The Qur’ân). This confirms two Hands for Allah, but there is no similarity for them. This is the Faith of all true believers, and was the Faith of all the Prophets of Allah from Noah, Abraham, Moses and Christ till the last of the Prophets, Muhammad saw . It is not like as some people think that Allah is resent every-where, here, there and even inside the breasts of men. These three aspects of Tauhîd are included in the meanings of Lâ ilâha ill Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah). It is also essential to follow Allah’s Messenger Muhammad saw : Wajûb Al-Itteba’ and it is a part of Tauhîd-al-Uluhiyya. This is included in the meaning: “I testify that Muhammad saw is the Messenger of Allah” and this means, “None has the right to be followed after Allah’s Book (the Qur’ân), but Allah’s Messenger saw “. [See the Qur’ân (V. 59:7) and (V. 3:31)].

Ø Tawâf : The circumambulation of the Ka’ba.

Ø Tawâf-al-Ifâda : The circumambulation of the Ka’ba by the pilgrims after they come from Mina on the tenth day of Dhul-Hîjja. This Tawâf is one of the essential ceremonies (Rukn) of the Hajj.

Ø Tawâf-ul-Wadâ’ : The Tawâf made before leaving Makka.

Ø Tayammum : To put or strike lightly the hands over clean earth and then pass the palm of each on the back of the other, blow off the dust and then pass them on the face. This is performed instead of ablution (Wudu) and Ghusl (in case of Janaba etc.) See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 1, Hadîth No. 334 and 340..

Ø Thâniyât-al-Wadâ’ : A place near Al-Madina.

Ø Tharîd : A kind of meal, prepared from meat and bread.

Ø Thaur : A well-known mountain in Al-Madina.

Ø Tilâ’ : A kind of alcoholic drink prepared from grapes.

Ø Tubbân : Shorts that cover the knees (used by wrestlers).

Ø Tulaqâ’ : Those persons who had embraced Islam on the day of the conquest of Makka.

Ø Tûr : A mountain.

Ø Uhud : A well-known mountain in Al-Madina. One of the great battles in the Islamic history took place at its foot. This battle is called Ghazwa Uhud.

Ø ‘Umra : A visit to Makka during which one performs the Tawâf around the Ka’ba and the Sâ’y between As-Safâ and Al-Marwa. (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 3, Page 1).

Ø ‘Umra : Synonym of Ruqba.

Ø Umm-al-Walad : A slave woman who begets a child for her master.

Ø Uqiya : 128 grams. It may be less or more according to different countries.

Ø ‘Urfut : The tree which produces Maghafîr.

Ø ‘Ushr : One tenth of the yield of land to be levied for public assistance (Zakât). (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 2, Hadîth No. 560).

Ø Waihaka : May Allah be Merciful to you.

Ø Wailaka : ‘Woe upon you!’

Ø Walâ’ : A kind of relationship (between the master who freed a slave and the freed slave).

Ø Walî [plural Auliyâ] : Protector, Guardian, Supporter, Helper, Friend etc.

Ø Walîma : The marriage banquet.

Ø Waqf : Religious endowment.

Ø Wars : A kind of perfume.

Ø Wasaya : Wills or testaments.

Ø Wasq: (plural Awsaq or or Awsuq) A measure equal to 60 Sa’s = 135 kg. approx. It may be less or more.

Ø Wisâl : Fasting for more than one day continuously.

Ø Witr : An odd number of Rak’ât with which one finishes one’s prayers at night after the night prayer or the Ishâ prayer.

Ø Yakhsifan : Eclipse.

Ø Yalamlam : The Miqât of the people of Yemen.

Ø Yamâma : A place in Saudi Arabia towards Najd.

Ø Yaqîn : Perfect absolute Faith.

Ø Yathrib : One of the names of Al-Madina.

Ø Zakât : A certain fixed proportion of the wealth and of the each and every kind of the property liable to Zakât of a Muslim to be paid yearly for the benefit of the poor in the Muslim community. The payment of Zakât is obligatory as it is one of the five pillars of Islam. Zakât is the major economic means for establishing social justice and leading the Muslim society to prosperity and security. [See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 2, Book of Zakât (24)].

Ø Zakât-ul-Fitr : An obligatory Sadaqâ to be given by Muslims before the prayer of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr (See Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 2, The Book of Zakât-al-Fitr, Page No. 339).

Ø Zamzam : The sacred well inside the Haram (the grand mosque) at Makka.

Ø Zanâdiqa : Atheists.

Ø Zarnab : A kind of good smelling grass.

Ø Zuhr : Noon, mid-day prayer is called Zuhr prayer.

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Posted by on August 24, 2010 in ISLAM


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